13 km from Marrakech 31° 41' 46'' N, 8° 03' 36'' W

Time period :


Implementing Institution/ Organization:

The Water and Electricity Distribution Authority of Marrakech (RADEEMA)

Funded by :

Government/Ministry of Interior/State subsidy under the NAP (National Sanitation Plan)/ RADEEMA/Golf Promoter Funding (2012–2016)


1) examine wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Morocco.
2) use recycled water in novel and innovative ways including to irrigate golf courses, green landscaped areas, the palm grove and 26 gardens and parks in Marrakech city.
3) offsetting a water deficit in the Tensift basin and alleviates pressure on conventional water sources.
4) reuse of this water, and treat it to a very high standard, in order to contribute to the health of the people and the environment.

Methodology (approach)

1) Review of technical documents.
2) Interviews with institutional heads at RADEEMA (Jaouher Touria and Houda Bilrha from the Water Department and Adil Daoudi and Tarik Al Mansoure from the WWTP and REUSE division related to the Operations Department at RADEEMA).
3) Interviews with managers at the Marrakech WWTP and Urban Landscaping Water Reuse project at RADEEMA.

Study Results

The Water and Electricity Distribution Authority of Marrakech (RADEEMA) has invested in efforts to collect and treat wastewater and exploit its reuse including from the Marrakech Wastewater Treatment Plant (Marrakech WWTP). Faced with a water deficit in the Tensift basin and to alleviate pressure on conventional water sources, this investment has made it possible to use this recycled water in novel and innovative ways including to irrigate golf courses, green landscaped areas, the palm grove and 26 gardens and parks in Marrakech city. The reuse of this water, which is treated to a very high standard, is contributing to the health of the people and the environment having achieved a water pollution control rate of more than 95%. The reuse project is located 13 km from Marrakech while the Marrakech WWTP, which serves 947,331 inhabitants of Marrakech city, is located northwest of the city, on the left bank of Tensift River (Figure 1.1). The plant has been operational since 2010 and has undergone several phases of development since its inception.
 The Marrakech WWTP started operations in 2010 and serves almost a million inhabitants of Marrakech city. In 2020, it had a capacity of 102,186 m3 /day achieved through a wastewater collection and transport network of over 3,000 km, which uses a mix of gravity and pumping stations – there are 21 pumping stations in total. The plant uses an activated sludge treatment system and treats the water to a tertiary level. The recycled water it produces is used to irrigate green spaces and golf courses around Marrakech City (Figure 1.2).
 A solar sludge drying station was set up in May 2018 (Image 1.1). It includes 40 greenhouses (each one is 1,440 m2 ). Twenty-eight of the greenhouses for solar drying are equipped with high-precision equipment for turning and aerating sludge, enabling the dryness of the extracted sludge to reach 80%. Using solar power saves 5 MW of thermal energy daily. The reuse network was initially designed to serve 20 golf courses in Marrakech and the palm grove. Currently it serves 14 golf courses, providing 8 million m3 / year of recycled water (Image 1.2). The total volumes guaranteed by RADEEMA are 84,000 m3 / day.
 The project has put in place the infrastructure to reuse 24 million m3 /year of recycled water from wastewater treatment plants. This represents the amount of drinking water needed in a city of 700,000 inhabitants, and as such contributes significantly to reducing the water deficit of the Tensift basin, estimated at 200 million m3 /year. The water reuse project has also created jobs in the field of sanitation and boosted the economic activities of businesses and tourism through increased investments, for example, in golf courses in Marrakech. Climate and environmental benefits include a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to 80,000 tons of carbon dioxide through the use of biogas generators and solar energy to dry the sewage sludge, which saves 120 MW/day. Sewage sludge is also recovered during the cement manufacturing process of which 50 t/day is used in its dried form to replace 18 t/day of petroleum coke in the cooking line of the clinker – the equipment which is used to make cement.
 Over the past decade, Morocco has made considerable progress in terms of gendersensitive democratic governance, which was institutionalized in 2014. Its government has recognized women’s economic empowerment is a key pillar for achieving gender equality, considering women’s economic, social and political empowerment as one of the foundations of the rule of law. To this end, on the path of modernization and democratization, the Ministry of Economy, Finance and Administration Reform has made great efforts to institutionalize gender equality in the public service. At RADEEMA, there is a program that targets groups including women, young people and children, to raise awareness about career opportunities in the treated wastewater sector. In March 2021, a new woman Director General of RADEEMA was appointed, providing a strong role model for other women.


Competence and professionalism of RADEEMA Financial contributions from partners in the reuse project as a whole Funding under the National Mutualized Sanitation Plan Financial solvency of users compared to reuse in agriculture Environmental certification of RADEEMA Strong mobilization of actors at the regional level An innovative project in Africa.

Under-recovery of treated wastewater Funding gap by golf course promoters Unclear responsibility of developers for water quality inside golf courses.

Objectives to promote reuse in policies, plans and programs Marrakech city is committed to becoming a sustainable city Water scarcity due to climate change creates a great opportunity for the fast deployment of water reuse expansion in North Morocco Leverage policies on gender integration to reinforce the contribution of women in program development.

Inadequacy of efficiency in the use of treated wastewater Economic crisis for the tourism sector (as was the case during the COVID-19 pandemic) that could reduce the demand for wastewater treated by golf course developers Risk of financial non-viability of Public-Private Partnership contract The reluctance of golf course developers and users of conventional water in the event of firm nonprohibition measures.

References (resources) Found is the case study

AFD-Ministère de l’Intérieur: Assistance technique à la Direction des Réseaux Public Locaux du Ministère de l’Intérieur, pour la mise en œuvre du Programme d’Appui Institutionnel au Secteur de l’Assainissement au Maroc (PAISAM), dans le cadre d’une subvention de la FIV d’un montant de deux millions d’euros en gestion déléguée à l’AFD a été octroyée pour le financement dudit PAISAM. .

Belkouadssi, M. 2016. Gestion integrée des eaux urbaines de la ville de Marrakech. ONEE (Office National de l’Electricité et de l’Eau Potable).

CRDA. 2020. Benlouali, H.; Harrouni, M.C.; Fallah, M.; Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R. 2017. Current situation of reclaimed wastewater reuse in golf courses in Marrakech (Morocco): Problems and solutions. Desalination and Water Treatment 91: 273–280. DOI:10.5004/dwt.2017.21567.

RADEEMA (Water and Electricity Distribution Authority of Marrakech). 2019. Rapport de gestion. Soudi, B. 2012. Pour BEI_SAFEGE-ONEP. Évaluation Environnementale Stratégique ONEP - Programme Assainissement.

Soudi, B. 2018. Appui a la promotion de la réutilisation des eaux usées par le renforcement des aspects institutionnels, réglementaires et financiers, ainsi que des démarches participatives, des mesures incitatives et la sensibilisation. LDK Consultants Engineers & Planners SA. pdf

Tahiri, M.; Larif, M.; Quabli, H.; Taky, M.; Elemrani, M.; Midaoui, A.; Khimani, K. 2015. Étude et suivi des performances des traitements, primaire et secondaire des eaux usées de la station d’épuration de Marrakech. European Scientific Journal 11(17): 139–154.

Waterleau. 2018. Le traitement des eaux usées de la ville de Marrakech. Belgium.

Ziyad, A. 2017. River basin master plans: planning and water management tools to identify hydraulic projects. AFRICA 2017: Water storage and hydropower development for Africa, March 14–16, 2017, Marrakech, Morocco.


ANPE: National Environmental Protection Agency
CRA: Agricultural Outreach Unit
GDA: Agricultural Development Group
CRDA: Regional Commission for Agricultural Development
CTV: Territorial Extension Unit
DGGREE: Directorate General of Rural Engineering and Water Management
DHMPE: Directorate of Environmental Health and Environmental Protection
MALE: Ministry of Local Affairs and the Environment
MARHP: Ministry of Agriculture, Water Resources and Fisheries
MSP: Ministry of Public Health ONAS Official Sanitation Office
ONAS: Official Sanitation Office
WWTP: Wastewater Treatment Plant